What is Linux, its History and Benefits
Do you know what Linux? What can we do with this Linux operating system? Whether you take any gadgets from smartphones to cars, supercomputers or your home appliances, these Linux operating systems are available everywhere. Although we may not have so much information about it, we are always using it.
Linux has been more than 30 years old. In the mid-90s, this was the first of our intervals. And since its usefulness since then, it has completely devoted itself to all the devices and will continue to do it. Those who have used the Linux operating system before, they would know about its usefulness but those who are not yet familiar with it, I want to tell them that they are often used by us in all the devices Which we normally use. Along with this, it is almost used in the entire internet servers, even in stock exchanges.
Mainly because it is a more reliable, secure and error-free operating system, Linux wants to use Operating System. And one thing is this completely open source and free too, which helps developers customize it in their own way. So, today I thought about why you should be given full information about what people are Linux so that you also have full knowledge about this excellent open-source operating system. Then, let’s start delaying and know what happens to the Linux after all.
What is Linux
Linux OS is a very popular version of the UNIX operating system. This is an open source software because its source code is freely available on the internet. With it you can use it for free, it means that it is completely free. Linux was designed to keep UNIX’s compatibility in mind. Therefore its functionality list often shakes with UNIX. Due to the Linux OS open source, developers can customize it according to their needs. With the Computer is a very reliable Operating system for.
What is Linux’s Owner Con?
Because Linux’s licensing is open source, Linux is also freely available for anyone. But still, the trademark named “Linux” goes to its creator, Linus Torvalds. The source code of the Linux OS goes into the name of many individual authors, so it has been put together under the GPLv2 license. Since there is a very large group behind Linux that has contributed to it and which took many years to develop, it is also not possible to contact them individually, so the license of Linux was included under GPLv2 That is where everyone has their consent.
How did Linux start?
Linux was created by Linus Torvalds in 1991 when he was a university student in the University of Helsinki. Torvalds built Linux on a free and open source alternative of Minix Os, which was another Unix clone, which was mainly used in academic settings.
He first thought to name it “Freax” but the administrator of that server whose Torvalds chose to distribute his Original code. He named his directory “Linux” which was a combination of Torvalds’ first name And of Unix These names were so good to hear that it was not changed later.
Linux System Components
If seen, the Linux operating system consists mainly of three components
1. Kernel – This kernel is the core part of Linux. It is responsible for all the major activities happening in the operating system. In this, the other modules are Mehmood and they interact directly with the underlying hardware. Kernel prevents the information of low-level hardware details from reaching the system or application programs or behaves like behaving like an abstract.
2. System Library – System libraries are called special functions or programs that user access to application programs or system utility Kernel’s features. These libraries implement almost all functionalities of the operating system and do not require kernel module’s code access rights to do so.
3. System Utility – System Utility is a program that is responsible for doing other special, and individual level tasks.
Basic Features of the Linux Operating System
Here we are going to tell you about some very important features of the Linux Operating System.
1. Portable – Portability means that this software can run in all kinds of hardware in a similar manner. Linux kernel and application programs often support all hardware platforms.
2. Open Source – Linux source code is freely available and it is a community-based development project. Multiple teams work by collaboration so that the capacity of the Linux operating system can be enhanced and therefore it is always evolving.
3. Multi-User – Linux is a multiuser system which means that multiple users can access all of their system resources such as memory/ ram/application programs at the same time.
4k Multiprogramming – Linux is a multiprogramming system with multiple applications means it can be run simultaneously, he also at the same time.
5. Hierarchical File System – Linux provides a standard file structure that allows system files/user files to be easily arranged.
6. Shell – Linux also offers a special interpreter program that executes commands executing operating systems. With this, it is used to do other different operations, called application programs.
7. Security – Linux also provides a very good security feature such as users’ password protection / controlled access, certain specific files / even data encryption and so on.
The architecture of Linux System and its Feeling Layers
1. Hardware layer – This hardware layer contains all peripheral devices (RAM / HDD / CPU etc).
2. Kernel – This is the core component of OS, which interacts directly with the hardware, along with it provides low-level service to upper layer components.
4. Shell – This is an interface that is the kernel, which hides the complexity of the functions of the kernel from users. They take commands from shell users and execute the kernel’s functions.
4. Utilities – These are called utility programs that provide all functionalities of the operating system to the user.
Useful Common Linux Commands
If you are running Linux for the first time and you do not know about Linux then you should know about basic common Linux commands. Here you are going to give people a list of Linux commands, which is going to bring you a lot of work ahead, note that I have provided only the list of commands here and not their syntax, You can learn from the place which is very easy.
1. ls: This will list current directory content.
2. cd: With this, you can change your current directory.
3. cat: This allows you to display the file content on the screen, along with it can copy and combine text files as well.
4. history: With this, you can see all the executed commands list on the screen.
5. chmod: This allows you to change the file permission.
6. chown: This lets you change the file owner.
7. clear: With this, you can clear screen for a fresh start.
8. df: From this, you can see used and available disk space.
9. date: This allows you to display the current system date and time.
10. du: With this, you can know how much space is taken in the file.
11. file: This allows you to recognize Mehjud type of data in the file.
12. find: This allows you to search any term in the file.
13. man: This allows you to display help for the specific command.
14. cp: This allows you to copy files and folders.
15. mv: With this, you can rename and move files and directories.
16. mkdir: This allows you to create a new directory.
17. lpr: With this, you can print any file content.
18. less: This allows you to view page content by page content.
19. tar: You can compress, create and extract any file from any file.
20. grep: With this, you can search for a string in a file.
21. ssh: With this, you can connect and login (encrypted & secure) with the remote machine.
22. su: From this, you can switch to a different user.
23. rmdir: This allows you to remove an empty directory.
24. rm: This allows you to remove files and directories (empty or non-empty).
25. pwd: This allows you to display the current user working directory.
26. ps: This allows you to display other information along with the running process id.
27. passwd: This allows you to change the user password.
28. more: Anyone can display file by page by page.
29. kill: With this, you can kill any process with the help of their process id.
30. gzip: This allows you to create a compressed file with .gz extension.
31. unzip: This lets you unzip or uncompress a file.
32. shutdown: This can shut down the machine.
33. free: can be used to dhow
34. top: This allows you to show a top process according to CPU usage.
35. who: This allows you to display the current user’s information which is logged in.
36. whereis: With this, you can get the location of any command (where they are stored)
37. whatis: This allows you to show any command information in a single line.
38. tail: This allows you to print the last ten lines of any file.
39. wget: This can download any file from the internet, rename it and store it anywhere.
Windows Vs. Linux: Key Differences
|Different data drives such as C: D: E is used in Windows to store files and folders.||Likewise, Linux uses a hierarchical file system like a tree.|
|Windows has different drives such as C: D: E||There are no separate drives here.|
|Hard drives CD-ROMs printers are considered devices||In Linux, Peripherals such as hard drives CD-ROMs printers are considered to be files.|
|There are 4 types of user account types here. 1) Administrator 2) Standard 3) Child 4) Guest||There are 3 types of user account types here. 1) Regular 2) Root and 3) Service Account|
|Administrator user has all administrative privileges here on computers||In the same Linux, only the root user is the superuser and he has all administrative privileges.|
|Here we cannot put 2 files in the same folder named the same name||, In the same manner, file naming convention in Linux is case sensitive. So you can put two files in the same folder with the same name.|
|In Windows, my Documents is the default home directory||The user/home/username directory is created for all the users in Linux which will be called their home directory.|
|These are Closed Source Software||These are Open Source Software.|
|These are not very safe where Virus attack is common to malware worms.||These are very safe and there is no flow of these Virus attacks.|
|This is a Single User and Multi Tasking||This is where Multi-User and Multi Tasking are.|
What is the distribution?
There are many different versions of Linux operating systems that are suitable for all types of users. Here you have a different version for everyone from new users to hardcore users. These versions are called distributions. All Linux distributions can be easily downloaded in free and can be burned in a disk and later installed.
Here you can see the most popular Linux distributions:
- Ubuntu Linux
- Linux Mint
- Arch Linux
All these distributions are Mehsud with different features and you should also choose them according to your needs.
For more resources
If you want to know even more about Linux, then I have provided here a link to a website which will give you more information about this excellent OS.
Please check these links where you will learn more about Linux:
- Linux.com : Here you are able to get all the information about Linux. (news, how-tos, answers, forums, and more)
- Linux.org : Here you are able to get all the information about Linux kernel. (With its beginner, intermediate, and advanced tutorials also)
- Howtoforge: Linux tutorials
- Linux Knowledge Base and Tutorial: A lot of tutorials here.
Application of Linux Operating Systems
- The Linux movie industry is a great help, as a render farm, where millions of machines always keep on playing movies.
- Linux system is also used for the menu system.
- All Android mobiles run on Linux platform.
- Even you can automate your home too.
- All Internet connection router runs on Linux.
- Small disk storage system manufacturers also run on Linux.
- Web App and Website Hosting also.
- All internet servers, databases, websites are run and maintained by the Linux operating system.
- All stock exchanges also run on Linux platforms.
- You can also run an Old and Slow PC too fast.
- All ATMs also use Linux Os to perform a payment process.
- It is used for any Video Game Machine and dedicated Media Center.
The Future of Linux Operating Systems
No one can say that Linux is the operating system of the future. This is because Linux is always the foundation of all the latest technologies. You can not imagine any future technology without Linux. Embedded systems are a similar example where Linux has been used extensively and where Linux is primarily used to create and maintain these applications.
All major organizations are now using Linux most according to the operating system. Since there are many such features in it, their demand is increasing day by day. With this, many system administrators are changing their job profile from Windows to the Linux operating system.
To learn any new technologies like cloud computing, virtualization, VMware, database administration, it is very important for you to know about Linux. So I think the future of the Linux operating system is very bright in the future.
I sincerely hope that I have given you full information about what Linux is and hope you guys have understood about what Linux. I am convinced of all the readers that you too share this information with your neighbours, relatives, your friends so that we will be aware of our interactions and will all benefit from it. I need people’s support from you so that I can bring you even more new information.
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